We always encounter questions and this usually indicates you are doing something new! However, how do we solve the questions we have? Asking someone is usually the best solution, but the question is where to ask? This depends on whom you wish to answer your question and what type of question is. So the following suggestions will depend on whom to answer your question.

  • Questions writing papers

Research Gate: This is probably the Facebook version for Academics. So post some questions about papers or some issues when you writing a paper. Example could be found here.

  • Questions about the R codes

Stack Overflow

This article will continuously be updated and I welcome anyone of you to post your experience here.
Read another article to know how to run BUGS with R. This article focus on the Common difficulties when running BUGS with R and their possible solutions.

Importing Data 
1. not meaningful for factors
This is old problem that not just happens when running BUGS. It sometimes happens because you copy your data from a large data set (in EXCEL) and paste it to a small one. Just change the format cell to "Number"and everything will be fine. 

Change the format cell in EXCEL

This article will continuously be updated and I welcome anyone of you to post your experience here.

小樣本就用質性方法,大樣本就用量化方法?如果選擇研究方法是這麼粗糙,那可能只是沒有選對研究模式而已,貝氏估計(Bayesian estimation),是一個強大且彈性的估計模式,但直到科技、演算法的進步到最近才在運用在各領域。這篇文章提供一些運用貝氏估計在質性方法的建言,可以反思量化與質性方法的區別到底有無必要性
做研究做久了,有些陳述似乎變成就是習慣一定要這樣做,裡如抽樣要來做分層抽樣,然後分層的依據都是根據學校規模。這樣的抽法上到台灣最大的大型教育資料庫(TASA),到最小的碩士論文,都是根據學校規模分層,但我沒看過有人進一步陳述說為什麼。我也是如此,但直到被Reviewer一問,我得自己去找答案,我從自己的專業出發,可能的解釋是我國資源分配受到學校規模影響很深(張良丞、王保進、許添明, 2010; Zhang & Sheu, 2013; 也請看教學實務現場的分享文),大校擁有的資源不論是老師數還是分配到的款項遠多於小校,而這些資源非常有可能去影響研究者正在調查的某項專案成效(例如考試成績、教師教學效果等),Smith and Humlum (2015) 甚至發現學校規模對於學生未來的長期產出(如高中畢業率、薪資等)都有顯著影響。如所以分層以學校規模是有道理的(淡化了資源影響),因為這使得大中小型學校都有被抽到的機會,換句話說,這使得樣本具有代表性來解答研究問題。



  • 張良丞、王保進、許添明(2010)。以學生學業成就評估國民小學教育經費適足性—以台北市為例。教育與心理研究。33(4),109-136
  • Humlum, M. K., & Smith, N. (2015). Long-term effects of school size on students’ outcomes. Economics of Education Review, 45(0), 28-43. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.econedurev.2015.01.003
  • Zhang, L. -C., & Sheu, T. -M. (2013). Effective investment strategies on mathematics performance in rural areas. Quality & Quantity, 47(5), 2999-3017.